In English, ‘there’ is an adverb. In Chinese, ‘there’ can be a noun. Or at any rate, can be analyzed as one.
Nàr hěn rè ma?
There very hot [question particle]?
Is it hot there?
Same with ‘here’.
Shì de. Zhèr hěn rè.
Is [particle]. Here very hot.
Yes. It’s hot here.
If that isn’t proof enough, then observe that you can apply the possessive to ‘here’ and ‘there’.
Zhèr de cài hěn hǎo chī.
Here’s dishes very good eat.
The food here is delicious.
I am not sure whether ‘hǎo chī’ is considered a word or a phrase. I don’t think it matters.
If you translateand as ‘this place’ and ‘that place’, they make perfect sense as nouns. Then you have to account for the fact that these phrases are used without prepositions as if they were adverbs and not nouns.
He is [located] that place.
But in factis not a noun meaning ‘place’. It is a noun that means ‘in’ or ‘inside’, or it’s the preposition ‘in’. So ‘ ‘ is ‘this inside’ and ‘na li’ is ‘that inside’.